Natacha Polony: "The right of peoples to self-determination"

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Natacha Polony : «Du droit des peuples à disposer d'eux-mêmes»Natacha Polony : «Du droit des peuples à disposer d'eux-mêmes»

CHRONICLE - Like its European neighbors, Spain has given up offering its citizens a common democratic horizon, to impose on them a pure management of globalization and its consequences.

Our politicians, in a kind of embarrassed amazement, are witnessing the dislocation of a neighboring European state, and their silence only underscores the total lack of reflection, from one end to the other of the chessboard, on this which structures and perpetuates the political communities. Catalonia and Spain are tearing apart, and nothing. Not a word. At most a forced declaration by Emmanuel Macron assuring Madrid of its support, in the name of solidarity between states and the widespread fear of contagion.

It is, however, perfectly absurd to attempt any parallel between the Spanish configuration and our boisterous independence. First, because Spain is a monarchy composed of many nations whose history could not be erased by the centralizing desire of Francoism. Secondly, because the current catastrophe is largely explained by the way in which Mariano Rajoy's party voluntarily put down the consensus voted in 2006 in the absolute respect of the Constitution by the Catalan and Spanish Parliaments.

But beyond the analysis of responsibilities (that the French media would be well inspired to recall, evoking for example the frightening lie of the government of Jose Maria Aznar and Mariano Rajoy in 2004, accusing Basques of ETA attacks of Atocha station to hope to win the elections, any politician is disqualified for life by such cynicism), the question is to understand why the Catalans can no longer articulate their Catalan identity with their Spanish. Simple question of fiscal egoism? The explanation is so tempting. But then, what about Germany and its obsession with not paying for European neighbors? For such is the stakes: there is only possible democracy as an expression of a "demos", of a people, within the framework of a fundamental law that organizes the terms of this expression. A people, that is to say a political community united by a desire to draw a common destiny and by what Ernest Renan called a "legacy of remembrance".

"It's all the paradox of liberal societies to unfold a boundless individualism, to destroy all cultural transmission in the name of the freedom to build oneself, to be surprised then by the weakening of ties of belonging."

Why does a part of the Catalan people no longer recognize themselves as a component of the Spanish people? Why are the peoples of the European continent not touched by the idea of ​​seeing themselves as a European people, despite the proclamations and injunctions of some of their leaders? The feeling of sharing with one's neighbor more than a fortuitous promiscuity is the product of a history and a social organization. And it is indeed the whole paradox of liberal societies to unfold an endless individualism, considered as the ultimate stage of emancipation, to destroy all cultural transmission in the name of the freedom to build oneself, to be astonished. then the weakening of the links of belonging and their recomposition through essentialized identities. It is not only a weakening of the nation-states that this ideology of reducing individuals to the status of monads reduces to their economic dimension, it is also, in response, an aspiration to community links without which the human being can not be fulfilled fully.

Spain is not only a state of which a part of the leaders did not completely settle the Francoist past, and whose Constitution bears the trace of the compromises which it was necessary to accept for the army to be willing to allow the democratic transition, it is also a nation which, like its European neighbors, has given up offering its citizens a common democratic horizon, to impose on them a pure management of globalization and its economic and human consequences. Is it any wonder that people are finally dreaming of a democratic horizon, the hope of starting from scratch, in a new national pact? This does not prevent illusions, since everyone puts in this pact what suits his vision of the world, the troops of Carles Puigdemont aspiring to enroll in a European economic space that they plebiscite, when the CUP imagines a society decreasing and antiliberal.

But if the French situation has nothing to do with, it is not trivial that Corsica has seen the victory, in recent elections, nationalists, while the FN made a perfectly derisory score. The anger, the feeling of democratic dispossession undermining trust between peoples and their rulers encourage us to imagine new democratic links, closer, more alive. This aspiration is noble, as long as it articulates the strata of identity and does not exclude in the name of an essentialized identity.

In this context, the role of politics is to imagine democratic forms of organization that will give citizens full possession of their destiny rather than confining them to Constitutions and treaties whose sole purpose is to keep them in the future. right path.


Source: ©  The Figaro Premium - Natacha Polony: "The right of peoples to self-determination"

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